Sunday 25th of June 2017 03:46:35 AM

CSS Style Guide

 

This Style Guide explains the markup and design requirements for web projects, along with various standards and best practices.

projects authored in valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional and styled with valid Cascading Style Sheets will be described here. See the XHTML and CSS sections below for details. Additional sections of this Style Guide, coming soon, will provide information on writing for the web, naming and filing your documents, and other useful topics and guidelines.

XHTML: Guidelines & Benefits

Library projects must be authored in structural XHTML 1.0 Transitional. Page authors should follow accessibility guidelines in compliance with U.S. Law, and so that our site’s content will be made available to the widest possible number of people, browsers, and Internet devices. In addition, all XHTML must validate.

XHTML Guidelines
The rules of XHTML as compared to HTML—an easy transition
What is XML?
A brief introduction to the foundation of XHTML
XHTML Benefits
Four key benefits of converting from HTML to XHTML
XHTML Authoring Tips & Tools
Simplifying the work process—includes tips on thinking structurally, and tools for hand-coders and Dreamweaver users
XHTML Accessibility Tips
Making sure your pages can be read by all visitors, browsers, and devices
XHTML Validation
Ensuring interoperability by avoiding errors and sticking to standards

CSS: Style Sheets & Tips

Library projects must use valid Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to control typography, color, and other layout elements. Style Sheets must be linked in a way that accommodates the capabilities of new and old browsers.

CSS Guidelines
Tips on authoring and linking to Style Sheets
Steal These Style Sheets!
Style Sheets for your use in Library projects
CSS Validation
Ensuring that your Style Sheets are error-free (same as XHTML validation)

A number of valid Style Sheets have been provided for your use. If you wish to create your own Style Sheets, please discuss your requirements with the Branch Library’s Web Coordinator.

Web-based applications are similar to app servers, except for one thing: Web-based applications don't have client apps, instead they use web browsers on the client side. They generate their front ends using HTML, which is dynamically generated by the web-based app. In the Java world, Servlets are best suited for this job.

Web-based apps might themselves rely on another app server to gather information that is presented on the client web browser. Also, you can write Servlets that get information from remote or local databases, XML document repositories and even other Servlets. One good use for web-based apps is to be a wrapper around an app server, so that you can allow your customers to access at least part of the services offered by your app server via a simple web browser. So web-based apps allow you to integrate many components including app servers, and provide access to this information over the web via a simple web browser.

Web-based apps are very deployable, since they don't require special Java VMs to be installed on the client side, or any other special plug ins, if the creator of the web-based app relies solely on HTML. Unfortunately, this can restrict the level of service that can be offered by a web-based app when compared to the functionality offered by custom clients of an app server, but they are a good compromise when it comes to providing web-based access to your information. In fact, in a real world scenario, both a web-based app and app server may be used together, in order to provide your customers access to their information. In an Intranet setting, you might deploy the clients that come with the app server, and in an Internet setting it would be better to deploy a web-based app that sits on top of this app server, and gives your customers (relatively) limited access to their data over the web (via a simple web browser).

Web-based apps and app servers integrate very well, and this is another reason why Java and XML make a powerful combination for developing systems that give your customers access to their information from anywhere, using any browser over the web. In the future, you can imagine various different web-based apps servicing different kinds of clients, e.g. web browsers on desktops, web browsers on PDAs, and web browsers on all kinds of different consumer electronics devices. By keeping your information structured in a pure way (by using XML), and by allowing access to this information through app servers, you can write many different web-based apps that render this information by customizing it uniquely for each different device that is allowed access to this information. This is more a more scalable solution that storing all this information in web pages, even if these web pages are dynamically generated. So you can have one app server that stores all the data in XML format. You can write a web-based app (which sits on top of this app-server) that allows PalmPilots to access this information over the web. You can write another web-based app (that also sits on top of the same app server) that allows conventional web browsers to access this information over the web. XML and Java have the potential to make this truly platform independent and device independent computing a reality.

API Coverage per category

link popularity
tag to get a similar effect. There is a better way, thanks to CSS.

P {text-indent: 0.25in;}

This rule will cause the first line of any paragraph to be indented a quarter-inch, as shown in Figure 4-1.

Figure 4-1

Figure 4-1. Text indenting

images -- which makes sense, of course. However, if you have an image within the first line of a block-level element like a paragraph, it will be shifted over withgood positioning implementations on the horizon as the book was being completed, we felt it worthwhile to give readers a glimpse of what's coming soon -- or, if you're reading this book a year or three after its publication, what can be done.

You may notice that, unlike other chapters, almost none of the figures in this chapter was generated with a web browser. This is something of a statement about the reliability and consistency of positioning implementations at the time of this writing: not one of them was solid enough to trust completely. It was actually easier to

Web-based applications are similar to app servers, except for one thing: Web-based applications don't have client apps, instead they use web browsers on the client side. They generate their front ends using HTML, which is dynamically generated by the web-based app. In the Java world, Servlets are best suited for this job.

Web-based apps might themselves rely on another app server to gather information that is presented on the client web browser. Also, you can write Servlets that get information from remote or local databases, XML document repositories and even other Servlets. One good use for web-based apps is to be a wrapper around an app server, so that you can allow your customers to access at least part of the services offered by your app server via a simple web browser. So web-based apps allow you to integrate many components including app servers, and provide access to this information over the web via a simple web browser.

Web-based apps are very deployable, since they don't require special Java VMs to be installed on the client side, or any other special plug ins, if the creator of the web-based app relies solely on HTML. Unfortunately, this can restrict the level of service that can be offered by a web-based app when compared to the functionality offered by custom clients of an app server, but they are a good compromise when it comes to providing web-based access to your information. In fact, in a real world scenario, both a web-based app and app server may be used together, in order to provide your customers access to their information. In an Intranet setting, you might deploy the clients that come with the app server, and in an Internet setting it would be better to deploy a web-based app that sits on top of this app server, and gives your customers (relatively) limited access to their data over the web (via a simple web browser).

Web-based apps and app servers integrate very well, and this is another reason why Java and XML make a powerful combination for developing systems that give your customers access to their information from anywhere, using any browser over the web. In the future, you can imagine various different web-based apps servicing different kinds of clients, e.g. web browsers on desktops, web browsers on PDAs, and web browsers on all kinds of different consumer electronics devices. By keeping your information structured in a pure way (by using XML), and by allowing access to this information through app servers, you can write many different web-based apps that render this information by customizing it uniquely for each different device that is allowed access to this information. This is more a more scalable solution that storing all this information in web pages, even if these web pages are dynamically generated. So you can have one app server that stores all the data in XML format. You can write a web-based app (which sits on top of this app-server) that allows PalmPilots to access this information over the web. You can write another web-based app (that also sits on top of the same app server) that allows conventional web browsers to access this information over the web. XML and Java have the potential to make this truly platform independent and device independent computing a reality.

BODY {background-image: url(yinyang.gif);
background-repeat: repeat-x;}

Now the image is repeated along the x-axis (in other words, horizontally), as illustrated in Figure 6-31.

Figure 6-31

Figure 6-31. Tiling along the horizontal axis

Finally, of course, we may wish not to repeat the background image at all. In that case, we use the last value, no-repeat, which is illustrated in Figure 6-32: