CSS: Style Sheet Guidelines (1)
According to its creators at W3C, Cascading Style Sheets “is a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents.” Let's expand that definition to see what it means for Web designers and developers:
- CSS is a standard layout language for the Web—one that controls colors, typography, and the size and placement of elements and images.
- Though precise and powerful, CSS is easy to author by hand.
- It is bandwidth–friendly technology: a single 10K CSS document can control the appearance of an entire website, comprising thousands of pages and hundreds of megabytes. (For an example, see the Sophisticated Style Sheet on page 2.)
- CSS is intended by its creators (W3C) to replace HTML table-based layouts, frames, and other presentational hacks.
- CSS, together with other web standards such as XHTML, helps us separate style from content, making the Web more accessible, and opening it up to more powerful applications and technologies to come.
- Conserve bandwidth (less markup for visitors to download)
- Reduce design/development time
- Reduce updating and maintenance time
- Increased accessibility (fewer, or no, HTML tables; no invalid junk markup)
- Adhere to W3C recommendations, improving interoperability and ensuring greater longevity (sites will not become obsolete)
- Better, more professional appearance (line–height, borders, padding, margins)
- Increased readability (line–height, borders, padding, margins)
- More easily transition in future to more powerful standards such as XML (because page content no longer contains junk markup)
The element's box is offset by some distance. Its containingblock is the area that the element would occupy if it were notpositioned. The element retains the shape it would have had were itnot positioned, and the space that the element would ordinarily have to improve navigability, but remember that multiple linked pages will downloadquicker than one huge page with lots of anchor tags!
<P>Note the use of keywords to make the
browser display special non-ASCII characters literally, e.g.: X> Y and Z < Y
implies X > Z.
Note the use of keywords to make the browser display special non-ASCIIcharacters literally, e.g.: X > Y and Z < Y implies X > Z.as wide as the paragraph's content area. The difference is madeup in letter- and word-spacing, as we see in Figure 8-49.
Figure 8-49. Line-box layout with full justification
Basically, italic text is in some way its own font, with small changes made to the structure of each letter to account for the altered appearance. This is especially true of serif fonts, where in addition to the fact that the text characters "lean," the serifs may be altered in an italic face. Oblique text, on the other hand, is simply a slanted version of the normal, upright text. Font faces with labels like Italic, Cursive, and Kursiv
The meaning of these values is shown in Table 7-1.