Monday 22nd of May 2017 09:25:46 PM

CSS Style Guide

XHTML: Benefits

Converting from HTML to XHTML is easy, and provides the library with several immediate and long–term benefits:

Like This . Instead of upper- and lowercase letters, a small-caps font employs uppercase letters of different sizes. Thus you might see something like the following, shown in Figure 5-29:

H1 {font-variant: small-caps;}
P {font-variant: normal;}
<H1>The Uses of font-variant</H1>
<P>
A painless transition to more advanced technology
The web is moving to XML, a powerfully enabling technology. Writing well–formed, valid XHTML pages is the easiest way to begin this transition. All it takes is learning a few simple rules of XHTML markup.
Cleaner, more logical markup
XHTML brings uniformity to document structure. The rules of XHTML help restore the structural integrity of documents that was lost during the web’s rapid commercial expansion between 1994 and 2001. This is critical for large organizations such as ours, whose web pages must interface with logically–marked–up documents in legacy systems and databases.
Increased interoperability
Unlike old–style HTML pages, valid, well–formed XHTML documents can easily be “transported” to wireless devices, Braille readers and other specialized web environments. Moreover, XHTML’s insistence on clean, rule–based markup helps us avoid the kind of errors that can make web pages fail even in traditional browsers like Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, and Opera Software’s Opera browser.
Greater accessibility
Because they follow strict rules and avoid non–standard markup, well–authored XHTML pages are more accessible than old–school HTML pages, helping the library comply with U.S. laws and accessibility guidelines.
« XHTML Section Index | XHTML Authoring Tips 'n Tools »

The inherited value of line-height is what causes the image to be raised nine pixels, instead of some other number. Without a value for line-height, it wouldn't be possible to perform percentage-value vertical alignments. The height of the image itself has no relevance when it comes to vertical alignment: the value of line-height is all that matters.

8.4.4.1. Adding box properties

declaration will be displayed as shown in
Figure 7-44:

P.shade1 {border-style: solid; border-width: thick; color: gray;}P.shade2 {border-style: solid; border-width: thick; color: gray;border-color: black;}
Figure 7-44

Figure 7-44. Border colors based on the element's foreground (top) and the value of the border-color property (bottom)

The result is that the first paragraph has a gray border, havingtaken the value gray from the foreground color ofthe paragraph itself. The second paragraph, on the other hand, has ablack border because that color was explicitly assigned using

7.5.3. Padding and Inline Elements

Thereis one major difference between margins and padding when it comes toinline elements. Let's turn things around and talk about leftand right padding first off. Here, if we set values for the left orright padding, they will be visible, as Figure 7-60makes apparent.

Web-based applications are similar to app servers, except for one thing: Web-based applications don't have client apps, instead they use web browsers on the client side. They generate their front ends using HTML, which is dynamically generated by the web-based app. In the Java world, Servlets are best suited for this job.

Web-based apps might themselves rely on another app server to gather information that is presented on the client web browser. Also, you can write Servlets that get information from remote or local databases, XML document repositories and even other Servlets. One good use for web-based apps is to be a wrapper around an app server, so that you can allow your customers to access at least part of the services offered by your app server via a simple web browser. So web-based apps allow you to integrate many components including app servers, and provide access to this information over the web via a simple web browser.

Web-based apps are very deployable, since they don't require special Java VMs to be installed on the client side, or any other special plug ins, if the creator of the web-based app relies solely on HTML. Unfortunately, this can restrict the level of service that can be offered by a web-based app when compared to the functionality offered by custom clients of an app server, but they are a good compromise when it comes to providing web-based access to your information. In fact, in a real world scenario, both a web-based app and app server may be used together, in order to provide your customers access to their information. In an Intranet setting, you might deploy the clients that come with the app server, and in an Internet setting it would be better to deploy a web-based app that sits on top of this app server, and gives your customers (relatively) limited access to their data over the web (via a simple web browser).

Figure 11-6

Figure 11-6. The original print document

Obviously, the folks at Meerkat Monthly havebeen having some fun with their desktop publishing program. Itwon't be easy to get everything just the way it is on the page,but we'll see what we can do.

First, let's take apart the page's layout and determinewhat to eliminate. Since there are no pages on the Web, we can dropthe page number. Also, the outer margins can be modified to suit ourneeds, since we don't have to worry about leaving extra space